The definitive marijuana guide from Cannabis UK

Motivational Effects of Cannabinoids Are Mediated by mu- Opioid and kappa -Opioid Receptors
by Ghozland S, Matthes HW, Simonin F,


Repeated THC administration produces motivational and somatic adaptive changes leading to dependence in rodents. To investigate the molecular basis for cannabinoid dependence and its possible relationship with the endogenous opioid system, we explored [Delta]9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) activity in mice lacking [mu]-, [delta]- or [kappa]-opioid receptor genes. Acute THC-induced hypothermia, antinociception, and hypolocomotion remained unaffected in these mice, whereas THC tolerance and withdrawal were minimally modified in mutant animals. In contrast, profound phenotypic changes are observed in several place conditioning protocols that reveal both THC rewarding and aversive properties. Absence of [mu] receptors abolishes THC place preference. Deletion of [kappa] receptors ablates THC place aversion and furthermore unmasks THC place preference. Thus, an opposing activity of [mu]- and [kappa]-opioid receptors in modulating reward pathways forms the basis for the dual euphoric--dysphoric activity of THC.